Ophthalmology

Artificial Intelligence

The eye structure is one of the most fascinating and complex part of the human body.

Our Deep Learning model is capable to analyze Eye Fundus images and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images to be able to detect different kind of diseases.

Among the diseases we can mention

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy is a complication of diabetes.The retina is the membrane that covers the back of the eye. It is highly sensitive to light.

It converts any light that hits the eye into signals that can be interpreted by the brain. This process produces visual images, and it is how sight functions in the human eye.

Diabetic retinopathy damages the blood vessels within the retinal tissue, causing them to leak fluid and distort vision.

There are two types of DR:

  • Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR): This is the milder form of diabetic retinopathy and is usually symptomless.

  • Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR): PDR is the most advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy and refers to the formation of new, abnormal blood vessels in the retina.

Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration is the leading cause of severe, irreversible vision loss in people over age 60. It occurs when the small central portion of the retina, known as the macula, deteriorates. The retina is the light-sensing nerve tissue at the back of the eye. Because the disease develops as a person ages, it is often referred to as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although macular degeneration is almost never a totally blinding condition, it can be a source of significant visual disability.

Macular Diabetic Edema

In people with diabetes, too much blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels at the back inner wall of the eye (retina) or block them completely. This condition is diabetic retinopathy. Sometimes, tiny bulges (microaneurysms) protrude from the vessel walls, leaking or oozing fluid and blood into the retina. This fluid can cause swelling (edema) in the central part of the retina (macula). This is a serious eye complication called diabetic macular edema that can cause vision problems or blindnes

Choroidal Neovascularization

“Neovascularization” means “new blood vessels.” These new, abnormal blood vessels originate in the choroid, a vessel-containing layer under the retina. When the retinas of people with AMD produce too much vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), new blood vessels sprout from the choroid, then grow into the retina.

The new vessels, unlike normal ones, are leaky, and they allow fluid from the blood, and sometimes even red blood cells, to enter the retina. This fluid can immediately distort the vision because it forms a “blister” in the retina, which is normally flat.

Over the course of days to months, this fluid can damage the retina, killing the light-sensing cells, called photoreceptors.

Microaneurysms

Microaneurysms are the earliest clinically visible changes of diabetic retinopathy. They are localised capillary dilatations which are usually saccular (round).

Exudate

Exudate is fluid that leaks out of blood vessels into nearby tissues. The fluid is made of cells, proteins, and solid materials. Exudate may ooze from cuts or from areas of infection or inflammation. It is also called pus.

In people who have an eye disease called diabetic retinopathy, exudates form in the retina of the eye.

Drusen

Drusen are the defining feature of macular degeneration. These small yellow or white spots on the retina  can be detected by an ophthalmologist during a dilated eye exam or with retinal photography. People with more than a few small drusen are said to have early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). People with drusen often may not experience symptoms. Rather, the existence of these deposits represent a risk for some degree of vision loss in the future.

Venous Beading

Venous Beading (VB) – Also occurring in the late stages of non-proliferative disease, VB occurs when the walls of major retinal veins loose their normal parallel alignment and begin to appear more like a string of sausages. Physically, IRMA represents a situation in which vein walls loose their elasticity and localized areas begin to dilate. This lesion is one of the strongest predictors of progression to proliferative disease.

To get more information about our Ophthalmology AI model, please contact us.

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